In een nieuw artikel van Henry L. Roediger III en Mary A. Pyc in het Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition brengen 3 cognitieve inzichten samen die leerkrachten snel en makkelijk kunnen toepassen en die een groot effect hebben op het leren van je leerlingen.
De 3 inzichten zijn:
- distribution (spacing and interleaving) of practice in learning facts and skills;
Ik vond deze video die het principe uitlegt:
- retrieval practice (via self testing) for durable learning;
In deze video wordt deze techniek uitgelegd vanaf 2’23”:
- explanatory questioning as a study strategy.
Hier zitten 2 technieken onder “elaborative interrogation and self-explanation”:
“Elaborative interrogation involves students generating plausible explanations to statements while they are studying (i.e., answering why some stated fact may be true). For example, if they learn that it takes Neptune longer than Mars to revolve around the sun, they should ask themselves why this is the case. By trying to answer the “why” question, the students have to think the issue through to understand it and then they will remember it better.
Self-explanation involves students monitoring their learning and describing, either aloud or silently (i.e., to themselves), some features of their learning. For example, while reading a new page of text, they might be asking themselves: What facts on this page do I already know? What facts are new? Obviously, the elaborative interrogation and self explanation are related because both strategies encourage or even require students to be active learners, explaining the information to themselves (perhaps rephrasing in language they understand better) or asking themselves why the information is true. Of course, retrieval practice also requires active learning, as people learn to retrieve information”
Abstract van de paper:
The need to improve the educational system has never been greater. People in congress and business argue for expensive technological applications to improve education despite a lack of empirical evidence for their efficacy. We argue that one inexpensive avenue for improving education has been largely ignored. Cognitive and educational psychologists have identified strategies that greatly improve learning and retention of information, and yet these techniques are not generally applied in education nor taught in education schools. In fact, teachers often use instructional practices known to be wrong (i.e., massing rather than interleaving examples to explain a topic). We identify three general principles that are inexpensive to implement and have been shown in both laboratory and field experiments to improve learning: (1) distribution (spacing and interleaving) of practice in learning facts and skills; (2) retrieval practice (via self testing) for durable learning; and (3) explanatory questioning (elaborative interrogation and self-explanation) as a study strategy. We describe each technique, provide supporting evidence, and discuss classroom applications. Each principle can be applied to most subject matters from kindergarten to higher education. Applying findings from cognitive psychology to classroom instruction is no panacea for educational problems, but it represents one helpful and inexpensive strategy.